Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

PPAR -alpha and -gamma pathways.

In the field of

  • [1] (PPAR Resource Page, Penn State University).
  • [2] (Nuclear Receptor Resource).
  • PPAR reference outline (Rutgers University).
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  • Proteopedia Peroxisome_Proliferator-Activated_Receptors - the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Structure in Interactive 3D

External links

  1. ^ Michalik L, Auwerx J, Berger JP, Chatterjee VK, Glass CK, Gonzalez FJ, Grimaldi PA, Kadowaki T, Lazar MA, O'Rahilly S, Palmer CN, Plutzky J, Reddy JK, Spiegelman BM, Staels B, Wahli W (2006). "International Union of Pharmacology. LXI. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors". Pharmacol. Rev. 58 (4): 726–41.  
  2. ^ Belfiore A, Genua M, Malaguarnera R (2009). "PPAR-gamma Agonists and Their Effects on IGF-I Receptor Signaling: Implications for Cancer". PPAR Res 2009: 830501.  
  3. ^ a b Berger J, Moller DE (2002). "The mechanisms of action of PPARs". Annu. Rev. Med. 53: 409–35.  
  4. ^ Feige JN, Gelman L, Michalik L, Desvergne B, Wahli W (2006). "From molecular action to physiological outputs: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors at the crossroads of key cellular functions". Prog. Lipid Res. 45 (2): 120–59.  
  5. ^ Tyagi S, Gupta P, Saini AS, Kaushal C, Sharma S (October 2011). "The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor: A family of nuclear receptors role in various diseases". J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2 (4): 236–40.  
  6. ^ Dreyer C, Krey G, Keller H, Givel F, Helftenbein G, Wahli W (1992). "Control of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway by a novel family of nuclear hormone receptors". Cell 68 (5): 879–87.  
  7. ^ Issemann I, Green S (1990). "Activation of a member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily by peroxisome proliferators". Nature 347 (6294): 645–50.  
  8. ^ Schmidt A, Endo N, Rutledge SJ, Vogel R, Shinar D, Rodan GA (1992). "Identification of a new member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily that is activated by a peroxisome proliferator and fatty acids". Mol. Endocrinol. 6 (10): 1634–41.  
  9. ^ Yu S, Reddy JK (2007). "Transcription coactivators for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1771 (8): 936–51.  
  10. ^ Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1736:228-236, 2005
  11. ^ Mol. Pharmacol. 77-171-184, 2010
  12. ^ Marlow LA, Reynolds LA, Cleland AS, Cooper SJ, Gumz ML, Kurakata S, Fujiwara K, Zhang Y, Sebo T, Grant C, McIver B, Wadsworth JT, Radisky DC, Smallridge RC, Copland JA (February 2009). "Reactivation of suppressed RhoB is a critical step for the inhibition of anaplastic thyroid cancer growth". Cancer Res. 69 (4): 1536–44.  
  13. ^ Curr. Mol. Med. 7:532-540, 2007
  14. ^ Meirhaeghe A, Amouyel P (2004). "Impact of genetic variation of PPARgamma in humans". Mol. Genet. Metab. 83 (1-2): 93–102.  
  15. ^ Buzzetti R, Petrone A, Ribaudo MC, Alemanno I, Zavarella S, Mein CA, Maiani F, Tiberti C, Baroni MG, Vecci E, Arca M, Leonetti F, Di Mario U (2004). "The common PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala variant is associated with greater insulin sensitivity". European Journal of Human Genetics 12 (12): 1050–4.  
  16. ^ Zoete V, Grosdidier A, Michielin O (2007). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor structures: ligand specificity, molecular switch and interactions with regulators". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1771 (8): 915–25.  
  17. ^ Atanasov AG, Wang JN, Gu SP, Bu J, Kramer MP, Baumgartner L, Fakhrudin N, Ladurner A, Malainer C, Vuorinen A, Noha SM, Schwaiger S, Rollinger JM, Schuster D, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM, Heiss EH (2013). "Honokiol: a non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist from nature". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1830 (10): 4813–9.  
  18. ^ Atanasov AG, Blunder M, Fakhrudin N, Liu X, Noha SM, Malainer C, Kramer MP, Cocic A, Kunert O, Schinkovitz A, Heiss EH, Schuster D, Dirsch VM, Bauer R (2013). "Polyacetylenes from Notopterygium incisum--new selective partial agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma". PLoS ONE 8 (4): e61755.  


See also

PPARα and PPARγ are the molecular targets of a number of marketed drugs. For instance the hypolipidemic fibrates activate PPARα, and the anti diabetic thiazolidinediones activate PPARγ. The synthetic chemical perfluorooctanoic acid activates PPARα while the synthetic perfluorononanoic acid activates both PPARα and PPARγ. Berberine activates PPARγ, as well as other natural compounds from different chemical classes.[17][18]

Pharmacology and PPAR modulators

The DBD contains two zinc finger motifs, which bind to specific sequences of DNA known as hormone response elements when the receptor is activated. The LBD has an extensive secondary structure consisting of 13 alpha helices and a beta sheet.[16] Natural and synthetic ligands bind to the LBD, either activating or repressing the receptor.

  • (A/B) N-terminal region
  • (C) DBD (DNA-binding domain)
  • (D) flexible hinge region
  • (E) LBD (ligand binding domain)
  • (F) C-terminal region

Like other nuclear receptors, PPARs are modular in structure and contain the following functional domains:


Hereditary disorders of all PPARs have been described, generally leading to a loss in function and concomitant lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, and/or acanthosis nigricans.[14] Of PPARγ, a gain-of-function mutation has been described and studied (Pro12Ala) which decreased the risk of insulin resistance; it is quite prevalent (allele frequency 0.03 - 0.12 in some populations).[15] In contrast, pro115gln is associated with obesity. Some other polymorphisms have high incidence in populations with elevated body mass indexes.

  • PPARα - chromosome 22q12-13.1 (OMIM 170998)
  • PPARβ/δ - chromosome 6p21.2-21.1 (OMIM 600409)
  • PPARγ - chromosome 3p25 (OMIM 601487).

The three main forms are transcribed from different genes:


Endogenous ligands for the PPARs include free fatty acids and eicosanoids. PPARγ is activated by PGJ2 (a prostaglandin) and certain members of the 5-HETE family of arachidonic acid metabolites including 5-oxo-15(S)-HETE and 5-oxo-ETE.[10] In contrast, PPARα is activated by leukotriene B4. Certain members of the 15-Hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid family of arachidonic acid metabolites, including 15(S)-HETE, 15(R)-HETE, and 15-HpETE activate to varying degrees PPAR alpha, beta/delta, and gamma.[11] PPARγ activation by agonist RS5444 may inhibit anaplastic thyroid cancer growth.[12] See[13] for a review and critique of the roles of PPAR gamma in cancer.

The function of PPARs is modified by the precise shape of their ligand-binding domain (see below) induced by ligand binding and by a number of coactivator and corepressor proteins, the presence of which can stimulate or inhibit receptor function, respectively.[9]

All PPARs heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and bind to specific regions on the DNA of target genes. These DNA sequences are termed PPREs (peroxisome proliferator hormone response elements). The DNA consensus sequence is AGGTCANAGGTCA, with N being any nucleotide. In general, this sequence occurs in the promotor region of a gene, and, when the PPAR binds its ligand, transcription of target genes is increased or decreased, depending on the gene. The RXR also forms a heterodimer with a number of other receptors (e.g., vitamin D and thyroid hormone).

Physiological function

After PPARδ (delta) was identified in humans in 1992,[8] it turned out to be closely related to the PPARβ (beta) previously described during the same year in other animals (Xenopus). The name PPARδ is generally used in the US, whereas the use of the PPARβ denomination has remained in Europe where this receptor was initially discovered in Xenopus.

PPARs were originally identified in Xenopus frogs as receptors that induce the proliferation of peroxisomes in cells.[6] The first PPAR (PPARα) was discovered during the search of a molecular target for a group of agents then referred to as peroxisome proliferators, as they increased peroxisomal numbers in rodent liver tissue, apart from improving insulin sensitivity.[7] These agents, pharmacologically related to the fibrates were discovered in the early 1980s. When it turned out that PPARs played a much more versatile role in biology, the agents were in turn termed PPAR ligands. The best-known PPAR ligands are the thiazolidinediones; see below for more details.


Three types of PPARs have been identified: alpha, gamma, and delta (beta):[3]

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
Symbol PPARD
Entrez 5467
HUGO 9235
OMIM 600409
RefSeq NM_006238
UniProt Q03181
Other data
Locus Chr. 6 p21.2
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Symbol PPARG
Entrez 5468
HUGO 9236
OMIM 601487
RefSeq NM_005037
UniProt P37231
Other data
Locus Chr. 3 p25
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
Symbol PPARA
Alt. symbols PPAR
Entrez 5465
HUGO 9232
OMIM 170998
RefSeq NM_001001928
UniProt Q07869
Other data
Locus Chr. 22 q12-q13.1

Nomenclature and tissue distribution


  • Nomenclature and tissue distribution 1
    • History 1.1
  • Physiological function 2
  • Genetics 3
  • Structure 4
  • Pharmacology and PPAR modulators 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8