Vitamin D receptor

Vitamin D receptor

Vitamin D (1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3) receptor
PDB rendering based on 1kb2.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: RCSB
VDR Gene
RNA expression pattern

The calcitriol receptor, also known as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and also known as NR1I1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 1), is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors.[1] Upon activation by vitamin D, the VDR forms a heterodimer with the retinoid-X receptor and binds to hormone response elements on DNA resulting in expression or transrepression of specific geneproducts. In humans, the vitamin D receptor is encoded by the VDR gene.[2]

Glucocorticoids are known to decrease expression of VDR, which is expressed in most tissues of the body and regulate intestinal transport of calcium.


This gene encodes the nuclear hormone receptor for vitamin D3. This receptor also functions as a receptor for the secondary bile acid lithocholic acid. The receptor belongs to the family of trans-acting transcriptional regulatory factors and shows similarity of sequence to the steroid and thyroid hormone receptors.[3]

Downstream targets of this nuclear hormone receptor are involved principally in mineral metabolism though the receptor regulates a variety of other metabolic pathways, such as those involved in the immune response and cancer.[4]

Mutations in this gene are associated with type II vitamin D-resistant rickets. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the initiation codon results in an alternate translation start site three codons downstream. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein.[5]

The vitamin D receptor plays an important role in regulating the hair cycle. Loss of VDR is associated with hair loss in experimental animals.[6]


Calcitriol receptor has been shown to interact with

Interactive pathway map


Further reading

External links

  • Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  • Nuclear Receptor Resource
  • Vitamin D Receptor: Molecule of the Month

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.